The research is focused on high-temperature thermochemical processes that efficiently convert concentrated solar energy into storable and transportable fuels. In the long term, H2O/CO2-splitting thermochemical cycles mainly based on metal oxide redox reactions will be developed to produce H2 and CO (syngas), which can be further processed to synthetic liquid fuels (e.g., diesel, jet fuel). In the shorter term, carbonaceous feedstock (fossil fuels, biomass, C-containing wastes) is being solar-upgraded and transformed into valuable fuels via gasification and reforming processes. The participants of this ...
Hardware/software to measure rate of weight loss as a function of time, temperature, and partial pressure. Gas product composition is monitored on-line by gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry. It enables the investigation of thermal and chemical processes at high temperatures (> 1000˚C) and high heating rates (> 1000˚C/s), with samples subjected to high-flux irradiation.
Methods for evaluation of material properties, including: Surface analysis using non-invasive assessment of micro and nano structures of technical surfaces. High performance thermogravimetric analysis. Microhardness analysis of specimens. Microscopical analysis. Sample preparation of metallographic specimens. (e.g. by cutting, impregnation and cold or hot mounting of specimens, polishing, etching or electroetching of metals). Analytical sieving.
Heliostat prototype including novel driving systems, structural design and foundation. The system has been tested at PSA from October 2016 to January 2017
Details of the system can be found at:
This asset corresponds to a shared development between CENER and IK4-TEKNIKER. Exploitation rights are shared accordingly.
Methods and equipment for the measurement of main thermo-physical properties of storage media such as melting temperature, specific heat capacity or thermal stability
Methods and equipment for the measurement of storage media composition (impurities, cross contamination agents….)
Measurement of the peak optical efficiency, incidence angle modifier and heat losses of parabolic-trough collector units by steady state tests.
Measurement of the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collector units by quasi-dynamic testing method.
Example of application of the steady-state test method available at the following link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.04.016
The Multi Effect Distillation (MED) technology is a key actor for the construction of new evaporative desalination plants. This is especially important when solar-powered cogeneration schemes are applied. With this regard, the analysis of transient behaviour requires the development of dynamic models for the MED process and relevant implementation such as the MED-TVC.
No easily available dynamic modelling tool can be found in the literature, and the few modelling papers available, refer to works in which several simplifying assumptions ...
New Coating Developments and durability studies of different optical coatings (reflective coatings, etc.) in indoor/outdoor tests and durability studies of components (glass, steel, etc.) of other systems such as trains and cables in desert areas under high velocity moving sand erosion.
Computer simulation of the optical properties of Mo:SiO2 and Mo: Si3N4 cermet solar selective coatings
José Ángel Sánchez-García1, Ramón Escobar Galindo2, Eva Céspedes 23, José
María Albella3, Carlos ...
Tekniker has several non-destructive testing equipments and algorithms to perform different inspection operations:
A video showing the system is available here:
A paper ...
Tekniker has several robotic equipments (mobile base and manipulators) with autonomous capabilities that can be used to perform different inspection operations.
Simulation methodologies for the designing of novel metallic alloys to be used for different applications (as thermal energy storage media in this project). Small prototype and Semi-Industrial Scale metallic alloy synthesis processes.
The design of the novel metallic alloys to be used as PCM for DSG applications was done using Thermo-Calc software package for the calculation of thermodynamic and phase equilibria using the SSOL4 thermodynamic database. This methodology has been applied by Tecnalia previously to the project fot the designing of novel alloys.
The semi industrial scale ...
Methodologies for the synthesis of different nanoparticles, nanoPCM and nanofluids for different applications. Methodologies for the characterization of these (composition, stability, dispersion, nanoparticle size distribution, thermophysical properties, etc.).
Test method and test facilities for the liquefaction and/or gasification of biomasses at mild temperature in the presence of near critical or supercritical water.
Two types of testing facilities are available to perform hydrothermal conversion processes of biomass, model compounds or other carbonaceous feedstocks, fed as water solutions/slurries. Tests can be perfomed in chemical reactors using pressurized water as reaction medium at temperature of 280 - 500 °C compatible with the use of solar-heated molten salt mixure (max T = 550 °C) as heat trasfer fluid (HTF). Both the reaction systems ...
Testing methods, test benches design and results evaluation methodology for durability study. We use climatic chamber with specific atmosphere and environmental parameter control such as temperature, temperature and humidity and salin mist chamber. Methodology is based on the knowledge come from the state of the art . Stress factor was applied with upper level and with high frequency as during the material using to accelerate the degradation processes. Accelerated ageing test will be conduct at 3 different stress level at least. The degradation of solar absorber performance is qualified over ...
Methods for evaluation of material properties: Micro hardness analysis of specimens, Microscopically analysis. Sample preparation: metallographic specimens. (e.g. by cutting, hot mounting, impregnation and cold mounting of porous specimens, polishing, chemical or electrochemical analysis of specimens), SEM EDS, FTIR
Studying the durability of materials used in solar reflectors by applying both real outdoor conditions and accelerated aging conditions in indoor weathering chambers
Solar reflector characterization by optical inspection (microscopy) and optical measurement of reflectance (spectral hemispherical reflectance, monochromatic specular reflectance, spectral specular reflectance and colorimetric)
Nowadays, wind turbine rotor blades can reach up to 85 meters in length and the turbines themselves can tower more than 200 meters above the ground. Consequently, rotor blades are subject to severely fluctuating wind loads due to the difference in wind distribution close to the ground and at the top end of the turbine. The result is high loads for the rotor blade material and an enormous challenge when it comes to the control system. In the case of storm winds in particular, the wind load can be so large that turbine operators are even forced to power the systems down in order to ...
Wind conditions are of paramount importance for any wind power project – they determine the
expected yield at a certain site and set the design parameters of wind turbines. LiDAR is a game
changing new wind measurement technology which will replace conventional met masts in many
applications due to its flexibility and its highly competitive price.
The main challenges associated with the use of LiDAR on a buoy is to design and build a system which
is robust and which works reliably in rough offshore conditions, but which, at the same time, delivers
data accuracy ...
Although today’s blades can hold lengths up to 85m, the established materials, usually glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP), encounter their constructive limits.
One of the main problems concerning offshore rotor blades is the blade stiffness, which needs to be increased with increasing length. A large blade of insufficiently low stiffness may hit the tower under extreme loading conditions. A total loss of the turbine would be the result. A sufficient stiffness of future blades with today’s established materials would either lead to very high weight in case of GFRP, or to inacceptable ...
Rotor blades constitute approximately a fifth of the total costs of an onshore
wind turbine. Their manufacturing is still dominated by manual processes with a cost distribution of 30 per cent for labor and 60 per cent for material. In order to increase quality and reduce costs, Fraunhofer IWES develops industrialized processes based on a cost model which considers an economic rating of alternative production scenarios. Frequent workshops with leading manufacturers make sure that current demands are understood and taken into account. IWES focuses on the industrialization of the entire process: Along with ...
FARM-WT is a numerical simulation tool devoted to preliminary design of wind turbine rotors through advanced, accurate and cost-effective modeling. The proposed technology focuses on blade aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. It can also be coupled to suitable aeroacustic models to evaluate wind turbine noise. Aim of FARM-WT is to help wind turbine community in the assessment of current designs, in the development of new concepts and in the maximization and control of power output capabilities. CNR-INSEAN has developed a devoted in-house aerodynamics and aeroelastic numerical tool that can be ...
CNR-INSEAN has developed a novel biaxial force transducer to quantify radial forces acting on a rotating shaft. It is designed to be mounted as shaft’s frame and it converts shaft’s loads into forces measurement, using sensitive plates equipped with strain gages. Scalability and sensitivity can be changed in a wide range just modifying main body dimensions or sensitive parts’ thickness.
Since failure of shaft's bearings due to radial loads is typical of ship propulsion system too, CNR-INSEAN has already successfully applied the device to measure propeller’s bearing loads on a ...
ECN has developed a software solution (called Active Wake Control) that allows to control the wakes in a wind farm to minimize the wake losses. This increases the power production of the farm, while keeping the loads on the wind turbines within their design envelope.
To this end, Active Wake Control effectuates the operation of individual wind turbines in (one or both) of the following two ways:
The basic idea behind WT-Bird is that collisions cause vibrations in the wind turbine structure, e.g. in the blades or the tower, that can be measured by acoustical vibration sensors. These raw measurements are processed in order to cancel out any disturbances, such as turbine operational noise, that may cause false trigger events.
In case of a collision a trigger event is generated, causing that:
- the collision is registered (date-time, location, classification of event, count nr., …);
- the video images before and after the collision are stored;
- the sound recordings ...
Since 2003 ECN is exploiting its wind turbine test facility EWTW (ECN Wind
turbine Test site Wieringermeer) in the municipality of Hollands Kroon.
The R&D wind farm consists of five Nordex N80 wind turbines with a rated capacity of
2.5 MW. The turbines have been used extensively by ECN and its international partners to
perform wind farm specific R&D programs and verify design tools.
The six prototype locations enable manufacturers to test and optimise
prototypes and execute measurement campaigns for certification purposes. Due
to the favourable wind ...
ECN has developed patented sensor technology that enables very accurate and reliable measurement of loads (e.g. on blades or towers). These sensors are very interesting for OEMs working on Individual Pitch Control (IPC) and for wind farm operators to support condition based maintenance operations.
Essential for a life cycle cost reduction of offshore wind energy is the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) phase. Especially offshore wind projects with a distance >40sm are associated with a high level of uncertainties in combination with little experience. During the O&M phase, changes are aligned with high costs and only small conceptual modifications are feasible. A reduction of the O&M costs, and thus life cycle costs, requires robust cost estimations already in an early project stage. By analyzing different O&M scenarios and concepts, considering corresponding risk profiles, the life ...
COAST, for Comprehensive Offshore Analysis and Simulation Tool, is an application to support project planning and execution of offshore wind farm installation projects. The main goal of the tool is to deliver a prediction of project durations by considering historical weather and sea state conditions.
COAST addresses two specific aims:
• During the planning phase, allow the simulation of the installation plan for given historical weather data and environmental constraints.
• During planning and actual installation, statistical analysis can be obtained ...
WAsP is the industry-standard software suite for siting of wind turbines and wind farms.
WAsP is used for wind resource and energy yield assessments, to wind conditions and site suitability characterisation; from single turbines in complex terrain to large wind farms offshore.
NAUTILUS concept is a four-column floating foundation for multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines.
NAUTILUS is a company founded by TECNALIA and incorporating Astilleros Murueta -a shipyard located in Bilbao-, TAMOIN - an electrial engineering and services company-, VICINAY MARINE INNOVACIÓN, -a world leader in mooring lines manufacturing-, and VELATIA -a world leader in electrical MV switchgear manufacturer for offhshore wind-.
Østerild - National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines´ geographical location and facilities allow for the wind turbine industry in collaboration with DTU and other research institutions to carry out research, development and tests of prototype wind turbines and new wind turbine technology.
ECN has developed a portfolio of technologies that could be used to improve the aerodynamic performance of wind turbines. The portfolio consists of several 'add-ons' such as root spoilers, vortex generators and winglets and can be used to retro-fit already installed wind turbines or can be integrated in the design of new blades.
Based on our experience, we believes that this portfolio of technologies has the potential to increase the Annual Energy Production of a typical wind farm with some 2-5%.
Test method, test facilities, data base for the thermal characterization
Linear receiver characterization - Measurement of heat loss, cermet-reflectance and glass-transmittance of linear solar receiver tubes
Design of heat storage systems based on nano-PCMs, thermal characterization of phase change materials
Concentrated solar power is a clean, efficient and competitive renewable energy source that represents an alternative to fossil fuels. Compared to other sources, concentrated solar power offers the possibility to store thermal energy, ensuring continuity and predictability of production necessary for industrial needs. Concentrated solar power fields are made of several hundreds of mirrors called "heliostats", that are placed around a central receiver which examines the collected solar power. In the actual implementation, solar fields can be made of both planar and concave heliostats, that may be ...
Physical basis for central receiver modeling and associated software